Impacto del Covid-19 en la salud mental: revisión de la literatura

Impacto del Covid-19 en la salud mental: revisión de la literatura

Contenido principal del artículo

Carlos Alberto Alvarez Palacio
Jorge Iván Toro Bermúdez

Resumen

Introducción: el 12 de diciembre de 2019 en Wuhan, China, se reportó el primer caso de COVID-19, que después se extendió y alcanzó la categoría de pandemia mundial, obligando a los gobiernos a tomar medidas de salud pública urgentes; lo que ha implicado la aparición o complicación de los problemas de salud mental en la población. Objetivo: describir el impacto del COVID-19 en la salud mental a partir de la revisión de la literatura científica. Materiales y métodos: se revisó la literatura consultando 9 bases de datos con los términos de búsqueda “COVID-19” y “mental” y el operador booleano “AND”. Los artículos fueron revisados y sintetizados con la ayuda de una matriz de 5 pasos y evaluados con las pruebas STROBE y CASPe. Un total de 43 artículos fueron seleccionados. Resultados: se encontró que China con 21 estudios (46,7%) presentó la mayor producción, utilizando diversos tipos de instrumentos aplicados de modo remoto. Las muestras fueron tomadas en momentos diferentes del brote (fase inicial, pico de brote y después del pico), desde diciembre 2019 hasta abril de 2020, en especial con diseños transversales (90.7%). El impacto psicológico se agrupó en las categorías de afectos negativos, afectos positivos, pensamientos negativos, ansiedad, depresión, estrés, alteraciones del comportamiento, consumo de sustancias psicoactivas, síntomas fisiológicos, alteraciones del sueño, impacto psicológico y cambios positivos en el bienestar. Conclusiones: se evidenciaron impactos del brote del COVID-19 en la salud mental. No se hallaron estudios colombianos.

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