Células madre mesenquimales para la regeneración de tejidos: ¿Por qué siguen siendo una promesa sin cumplir?

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Carlos Hugo Escobar

Resumen

Desde su descripción inicial, hace ya más de 40 años, las células madre mesenquimales (MSC) fueron reconocidas como una importante alternativa para el manejo de enfermedades caracterizadas por la pérdida aguda o crónica de tejido, gracias a su capacidad de proliferación y diferenciación, lo cual les permitiría sustituir las células perdidas y de esta forma recuperar la estructura y función. Cada vez es más abundante la evidencia que sugiere el potencial de estas células para el manejo de un amplio grupo de enfermedades, al menos en modelos experimentales preclínicos. No obstante, esta capacidad no ha podido refrendarse contundente y consistentemente en ensayos clínicos. Con la presente revisión, se pretende presentar una visión del estado actual del desarrollo conceptual en torno a las capacidades terapéuticas de las MSC y un análisis crítico de algunos de los factores, que han impedido que estas sean una opción terapéutica usable en la práctica clínica diaria.

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