Neuropatías en el embarazo

Neuropathies in pregnancy

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Javier D. Triana
Sergio A. Salgado


Las neuropatías en el embarazo aunque no muy frecuentes, sí generan un gran impacto en la calidad de vida cuando no se establece el diagnóstico y tratamiento oportunos. Existen varios mecanismos fisiopatológicos como los de origen mecánico, hormonal e inmunológico. La localización de la lesión neuronal dependerá del mecanismo y por ende tiene relación directa con el trimestre del embarazo. Así, las neuropatías de origen hormonal y mecánico asociadas con el embarazo, como la del túnel del carpo que es la más frecuente, se presentan más en el segundo y tercer trimestre, mientras las de estricta aparición mecánica como las que comprometen los miembros inferiores, ocurren en especial durante el parto. Otras neuropatías como las craneales son infrecuentes y obligan a descartar etiologías secundarias. Las polineuropatías más que estar relacionadas con el embarazo, son precipitadas o se pueden expresar durante esta condición. La siguiente revisión narrativa describe las neuropatías más comunes durante el embarazo según la localización, sintomatología, hallazgos clínicos, trimestre de aparición y presunto origen fisiopatológico.

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