Prevalencia de disfunción diastólica por ecocardiograma en hipertensión arterial

Prevalence of ecocardiographic indexes of diastolic disfunction in hypertensive patients Estudio de corte transversal

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Alfonso Ernesto Ternera Barrios
Santiago Mauricio Cabrera Arboleda
Rafael Alberto Álvarez Rasero

Resumen

La hipertensión arterial a menudo se asocia con disfunción diastólica, que por sí sola es un marcador de riesgo cardiovascular. La ecocardiografía es el método más utilizado y relevante en su diagnóstico. Objetivo: establecer la prevalencia de disfunción diastólica en hipertensos mediante ecocardiografía Doppler (pulsado y tisular). Métodos: estudio de corte transversal. Se realizaron ecocardiogramas transtorácicos basales evaluando las ondas E y A del Doppler pulsado y la onda e del Doppler tisular, en pacientes mayores de quince años con hipertensión arterial que asistieron al servicio de cardiología del Hospital de San José entre marzo y agosto de 2009. Resultados: se evaluaron 115 pacientes, 53% mujeres y 47% hombres, con edad promedio de 66.1 años. Por técnica Doppler pulsado se identificó el 82% de la población hipertensa con disfunción diastólica, la mayoría grado I (74,8%). No se documentó con Doppler tisular. En los casos positivos la frecuencia de diabetes mellitus, tabaquismo y terapia de remplazo renal fue mayor. Conclusiones: la frecuencia de disfunción diastólica por Doppler pulsado es alta en los hipertensos. El diagnóstico requiere el uso de múltiples parámetros y no se debe limitar a las técnicas pulsado y/o tisular.

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