Composición y funciones de la flora bacteriana intestinal

Composition and functions of intestinal bacterial flora

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Mario Gómez Duque
Fanny Acero

Resumen

Las enfermedades gastrointestinales son una causa importante de morbilidad y mortalidad alrededor del mundo. Involucran enfermedades inflamatorias crónicas como colitis ulcerativa y enfermedad de Crohn, además de afecciones infecciosas y funcionales como el síndrome de intestino irritable. El tratamiento ha sido de difícil manejo dada la ambigüedad y las múltiples teorías que rodean la etiología. Se han relacionado elementos psicosociales, cambios en la motilidad gastrointestinal, factores inmunológicos, genéticos y hace poco alteraciones en la flora intestinal. Esta microflora bacteriana es un tema complejo y olvidado que contribuye de manera importante no sólo en los procesos de degradación y absorción de sustratos de la dieta, sino que cumple funciones inmunológicas y protectoras en cada organismo. Conocer su composición, distribución y las múltiples acciones que cumple para mantener el equilibrio en el ecosistema gastrointestinal, resulta esencial para comprender su participación en la prevención y tratamiento de trastornos inflamatorios y de la motilidad gastrointestinal.

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