Accidentalidad vial por consumo de drogas y alcohol: estado actual

Road traffic accidents related to drugs and alcohol: current situation

Contenido principal del artículo

Camilo Uribe Granja
Miguel Ángel Saavedra
José Rafael Almarales Navarro
Lorenzo Eduardo Cabezas Pulido
Pedro Vicente Soto Bohórquez

Resumen

Introducción: el consumo de alcohol se reconoce como causa importante de accidentes de tránsito por el efecto depresor sobre el sistema nervioso central. Aunque las drogas recreacionales o ilegales tienen una acción similar es poco lo que se conoce sobre su relación con la accidentalidad vial. Objetivo: conocer la situación actual en Colombia y el mundo sobre los efectos del alcohol y las sustancias psicoactivas ilegales en el sistema nervioso central como posibles causas de accidentes de tránsito. Métodos: revisión de la literatura en bases electrónicas utilizando los términos DeCS y MeSH: street drugs, designed drugs, ethanol, cocaine, cannabinoides, amphetamines, injuries, accident traffic y automobile driving. Resultados: algunos estudios en especial en Estados Unidos, se reporta una relación estrecha entre el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas y la accidentalidad vial, con cifras cercanas a las del alcohol. En México también se ha demostrado esta relación. En Colombia la mayoría de publicaciones sobre factores de accidentalidad vial no diferencian el consumo de alcohol de las sustancias psicoactivas, lo cual refleja la falta de programas de promoción y prevención sobre el riesgo de conducir bajo la acción de estas sustancias. Los exámenes para determinar su presencia no se ordenan en forma rutinaria y por los datos existentes no reflejan los costos reales derivados de la atención a víctimas de accidentes de tránsito causados por conducir bajo sus efectos. Conclusiones: la situación actual sobre la accidentalidad vial muestra un preocupante aumento de la mortalidad, morbi­ lidad y discapacidad en países en vías de desarrollo como el nuestro. Se analizaron los efectos del alcohol, cocaína, canabinoides y metanfetaminas sobre el sistema nervioso central que disminuyen las habilidades del individuo para la conducción.

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