Semiología de la crisis epiléptica: un reto clínico

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Autores

Eduardo Palacios
Carlos Clavijo-Pardo

Resumen

La epilepsia es una afección cerebral crónica caracterizada por crisis recurrentes, autolimitadas y de etiología diversa cuyas manifestaciones clínicas incluyen una variada gama de signos y síntomas en relación con las zonas corticales estimuladas, considerando y diferenciando adecuadamente la zona epileptogénica al igual que la sintomatogénica en el contexto claro del arte de la interpretación semiológica que reúne un adecuado conocimiento de las funciones corticales y el reconocimiento respectivo de lateralizadores y localizadores del foco epileptogénico, para determinar adecuadamente el tipo de epilepsia o síndrome epiléptico. El objetivo de este artículo es plantear de forma clara y concisa los hallazgos en la presentación clínica de las principales formas de epilepsia o síndromes epilépticos en relación con la función cortical por lóbulos, lo que nos permitirá una mayor introspección y habilidad en la práctica clínica en el diagnóstico rápido y oportuno. El diagnóstico de epilepsia depende de un número amplio de factores, particularmente detallados y precisos en la historia de las crisis o semiología.

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