Evaluación de la enfermedad de membrana hialina en recien nacidos

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Autores

Juan Augusto Perna
Iván Pérez H.
Julia Eugenia Ramírez
Maŕia Elena Varela D

Resumen

Para valorar la incidencia de la enfermedad de membrana hialina (EMH), caracterizar la población de riesgo, evaluar el tratamiento instaurado y las complicaciones más frecuentes en recien nacidos, se realizó un estudio retrospectivo descrip­tivo en los pacientes que ingresaron a la Unidad de Cuidado lntensivo Neonatal (UCIN) del Hospital de San Jose. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes en los cuales se diagnosticó clínica y paraclínicamente EMH, quienes fueron distribuidos en cuatro grupos seg(rn el peso. Los datos recopilados mostraron una mayor incidencia de EMH en los menores de 1.000 g (63%), en comparación con los mayores de 1.500 g (5%). La complicación encontrada con mayor frecuencia fue la enfermedad pulmonar crónica del recien nacido(24%), seguida del neumotorax (21 %). En el estudio, la mortalidad fue de (33,5%), la cual es mayor a la reportada en la literatura mundial, posiblemente secundaria a la alta incidencia de complicaciones, sobre todo en los pacientes menores de 1.000 g. Finalmente se plantean estrategias de manejo para disminuir la morbimortalidad de los pacientes con EMH.

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