Bases moleculares del cáncer

The molecular fundamentals of cancer

Contenido principal del artículo

Otto Gabriel Monzón
Edmundo Mora Padilla
Lilian Torres Tobar
Luz Dary Gutiérrez
Cladelis Rubi

Resumen

El cáncer es una enfermedad caracterizada por la proliferación anormal de células neoplásicas, dada en esencia por alteraciones genéticas y epigenéticas. El control de las diferentes funciones celulares está dado por los genes codificados en el ADN, por lo tanto algunas alteraciones en genes que codifican para las proteínas involucradas en el ciclo de proliferación celular pue­ den inducir una cascada de eventos que llevan a la producción del fenotipo cancerígeno. La transformación maligna requiere que ocurran alteraciones en genes específicos que controlan la proliferación celular, la apoptosis y el mantenimiento de la integridad del ADN en la misma célula. Las mutaciones tienen la posibilidad de aparecer de manera esporádica o de heredarse, pueden ser sustituciones de bases, adiciones, deleciones o cambios epigenéticos. El presente artículo revisa conceptos moleculares involucrados en la génesis del cáncer.

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